Keynote Speakers: (alphabetic order)

Liangcai CAO, Tsinghua University, China
Kai CHENG, Brunel University London, UK
Fengzhou FANG, Tianjin University, China/ University College Dublin, Ireland
Han HAITJEMA, KU Leuven, Belgium
Jianguo HE, China Academy of Engineering Physics, China
Dae Wook KIM, University of Arizona, The United States
Mustafizur RAHMAN, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Sandy TO, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
Min XU, Fudan University , China
Liangchi ZHANG, University of New South Wales, Australia
Xuejun ZHANG, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, China
Bi ZHANG, Southern University of Science and Technology, China


Invited Speakers: (alphabetic order)

Yanlong CAO, Zhejiang University, China
Shih-Chi CHEN, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Zhishan GAO, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China
River Guo, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HKSAR
Lingbao KONG, Fudan University, China
Bing LI, Harbin Institution of Technology, China
David ROBERTSON, son-X GmbH, Germany
Zhen TONG, University of Huddersfield, The United Kingdom
Shuming YANG, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Xiaodong ZHANG, Tianjin University, China
Xin ZHANG, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, China








Keynote Speakers: (alphabetic order)

Liangcai CAO, Tsinghua University, China

Compressive sensing for high resolution digital holographic imaging
Liangcai Cao and Guofan Jin
State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China
E-mail: clc@tsinghua.edu.cn; jgf-dpi@tsinghua.edu.cn

Biography:
Liangcai Cao received his BS/MS and PhD degree from Harbin Institute of Technology and Tsinghua University, in 1999/2001 and 2005, respectively. Then he became an assistant professor at Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University. He is now a Tenured Associate Professor at Tsinghua University and director of Institute of Opto-Electronic Engineering at Tsinghua University. He was a visiting scholar at UC Santa Cruz and MIT in 2009 and 2014, respectively. His current research interests are optical imaging and display based on holography. He has more than 90 peer-reviewed journal papers published and holds about 20 patents. He is a fellow of SPIE and senior member of OSA.

Abstract:
Digital holography has been widely applied in topography measurements and quantitative phase imaging. Recently, compressive sensing (CS) method has been a powerful tool for high resolution digital holographic imaging. In this work, a three-dimensional imaging algorithm is developed based on the total-variation sparsity constraint. The CS algorithm could reconstruct a hologram completely free from the twin image, which is greatly improved over traditional methods. The proposed iterative algorithm could filter out the diffuse conjugated signal and overcome the inherent physical symmetry of holographic reconstruction. Meanwhile, an efficient block-wise CS algorithm is proposed to reduce the reconstruction time. The applications of this method for micrometer resolution and centimeter field-of-view three-dimensional imaging are presented.

Kai CHENG, Brunel University London, UK

Ultraprecision machining of high precision optical devices in an industrial scale: machines, systems and future perspectives
Professor Kai Cheng
Brunel University London
Biography:
Professor Cheng is a Chair Professor in Manufacturing Systems at Brunel University London. His current research interests focus on design of high precision machines, ultraprecision and micro/nano manufacturing, smart tooling and smart machining. He is currently leading the Ultraprecision and Micro/Nano Manufacturing Theme at Brunel University London, which involves 12 academic staff, 5 postdoctoral fellows and about 40 PhD students. Professor Cheng and his team have enjoyed working closely with industrial companies in the UK, Europe, USA and Far East. They are working on a number of research projects funded by the EPSRC, NATEP Program, RAEng, Innovate UK program, EU Horizon 2020 Programs, and the industry. Professor Cheng is a Charted Engineer and a Fellow of the IMechE and IET, and also honored as the visiting professor at Harbin Institute of Technology.

Abstract:
In this presentation, it firstly provides a critical review on the fundamentals and key enabling technologies for ultraprecision machining of high precision optical devices in multiple scales, e.g. including contact lenses, vari-focal lenses, infra-red devices, KDP crystals, fused silica switch mirrors, large optics for satellites and space telescopes. The fundamentals and key enabling technologies cover ultraprecision machines, tooling and machining processes particularly the multiscale multiphysics based design, modeling and analysis involved. Secondly, it discusses and explores the design methods for existing and next generation ultraprecision machines, comprising of the machine design configuration and specifications, mechanical design, actuation system, control system, tooling interfacing and interaction, in-process monitoring and measurement, the machine system integration. Furthermore, design of the ultraprecision manufacturing system is presented in light of the machines developed and built. The application exemplars are also presented and discussed including design of an ultraprecision machine for manufacturing vari-focal lenses, and ultraprecision machining of contact lenses and PMMA devices in an industrial scale. The presentation is concluded with a further discussion on the potential and application of the proposed approach in broad precision engineering industries.

Fengzhou FANG, Tianjin University, China

Manufacturing III: Atomic and/or Close-to-atomic Scale Manufacturing
Fengzhou Fang
Centre of Micro/nanoManufactuirng Technology-MNMT, Tianjin University
Biography:
Professor Fengzhou Fang has been working in the field of manufacturing since he became a faculty member at university in 1982. His research interests are in the areas of micro/nano manufacturing, optical freeform manufacturing, bio-medical manufacturing, ultra-precision machining and metrology. He has been invited to deliver over 90 keynote speeches and invited presentations in international conferences and seminars in manufacturing field, and holds more than 50 patents related to manufacturing methods, processes, systems and instruments. Dr. Fang is a fellow of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP), the International Society for Nanomanufacturing (ISNM), and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME). He served as a council member of CIRP, the chairman of the CIRP Manufacturing Curriculum Committee (MEC), and a board member of the Asian Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology (ASPEN). He is the founding president of ISNM and the editor-in-chief of the Nanomanufacturing and Metrology (N&M).

Abstract: Manufacturing is the foundation of a nation’s economy. It is the primary industry to promote economic and social development. To upgrade the manufacturing technology from "precision manufacturing” to "high performance and high quality manufacturing”, a new breakthrough should be found in terms of achieving a "leap-frog development”. Different to conventional manufacturing, the fundamental theory of "Manufacturing III” is beyond the scope of conventional theory. It is based instead on new principles and theories at the atomic and/or close-to-atomic scale, called ACSM. This keynote will address the key issues In ACSM from concept to main characterisations.

Han HAITJEMA, KU Leuven, Belgium

Traceability and uncertainty aspects of optical and mechanical surface measurements
Han Haitjema
KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300 – box 2420, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
han.haitjema@kuleuven.be

Biography:
Han Haitjema studied physics in Utrecht and obtained his PhD in technical physics at TU Delft. He then specialized in dimensional metrology at respectively the VSL in Delft as a researcher, at TU Eindhoven in the precision engineering group of Prof. Schellekens as assistant professor, at Mitutoyo Research Center Europe as director, and now as professor in "Dimensional and surface metrology of complex surfaces" at the KU Leuven.

Abstract:
In the measurement of surfaces as they are used and needed optics manufacture, many aspects of traceability and uncertainty arise. The route to traceability from a surface to ultimately the speed of light that defines the unit of length: the metre, is not at all straightforward. This presentation highlights some common aspects of traceability and uncertainty that are present in any surface measurement. Some of these may be obvious, such as the surface height that may be calibrated by step height standards. The traceability route to an absolute flatness reference is already less straightforward and the matter becomes really complicated when aspects such as surface filtering, bandwidth, parameter calculation, and measurement noise must be taken into account.

In this presentation an overview of calibration methods and artefacts will be presented, in combination with related aspects of traceability and uncertainty estimations. It will also be explained how a common framework is being made in ISO standards that define a set of typical metrological characteristics that are common for any surface measuring instrument. However these standards even define the calibration methods, the route to a full uncertainty evaluation is not yet straightforward and open to interpretation. Some methods will be given that can be applied to both optical and mechanical surface measurement. Essential in any approach is a solid theory and measurement model of the probe-surface interaction, that is more or less available for mechanical measurements and under development for optical measurements. The presentation concludes with an outlook to further research.

Jianguo HE, China Academy of Engineering Physics, China

Developments and Challenges in the Ultra-Precision Polishing Technology Of Large-Aperture KDP Crystals
Jianguo He
Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology,
China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900,
China
Biography:
Professor Jianguo He is the director of Science and Technology Commission of Institute of Mechanical Manufacturing Technology (IMMT), China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP); the vice-director of the academic committee of key laboratory of ultra-precision machining technology of CAEP; and one of the deputy chief scientists of science challenge project of extreme manufacturing. He was awarded as the academic and technological leader in Sichuan, China. One of his main research interests is magnetorheological finishing technology (MRF). As a project leader, he completed many important projects such as “Preparation of magnetorheological polishing fluid based on modification of composite carbonyl iron particles”, “Magnetorheological finishing material removal mechanism and technical basics”, and “Aspherical magnetorheological finishing technology and equipment”.

Abstract:
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) laser system requires a large quantity of large-aperture potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with extremely high-precision. However, KDP crystal is one of the most difficult materials to be machined due to its characteristics of anisotropy, easy-deliquescence, soft-brittleness, and temperature sensitivity. The ultra-precision machining technology of large-aperture KDP crystals is a research hotspot in the field of advanced optical manufacturing.

Single point diamond fly-cutting is the most effective way to manufacture large-aperture KDP crystals. The full-range spatial errors controlling of KDP crystal for National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been well realized by using diamond fly-cutting in the United States. However, small-scale ripple errors and waviness errors persist, which are difficult to be reduced in the fly-cutting process. A variety of other ultra-precision machining technologies have been explored, such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), magnetorheological finishing (MRF), jet polishing (JP) and other polishing technologies. China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) has carried out some novel ultra-precision polishing research which may be beneficial to the manufacture of large-aperture KDP crystal.

MRF is a highly deterministic and flexible polishing technique, utilising the rheological properties of a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid. In the MRF process, a new type of oil-based MR fluid was developed. A methoxyl polyethylene glycol (MPEG) soft coating was designed to modify the carbonyl iron powders (CIPs) surface. The removal mechanism and surface defects generation mechanism for KDP crystals were analyzed. Roughness and defects were well controlled by maintaining a balance between chemical and mechanical removal. The full-range spatial errors controlling techniques were also investigated. For a large-aperture KDP crystal of 410 mm × 410 mm, figure accuracy PV value was greatly reduced and roughness was reduced to RMS less than 2 nm.

Due to the inevitably existence of residue on KDP surface after MRF, a novel abrasive-free jet polishing (AFJP) was presented. AFJP makes use of a thermodynamically and kinetically stable ionic liquid (IL) microemulsion. The material removal mechanisms in contact removal and slipping removal were studied. Experiments showed that an IL microemulsion as an abrasive-free jet can indeed improve the quality of KDP surface, leaving no residue.

Finally, CMP with abrasive-free microemulsion was explored. Based on the interface reaction dynamics, KDP aqueous solutions with different concentrations (cKDP) were applied to replace water in the traditional water-in-oil microemulsion. The practicability of the controlled deliquescent mechanism was proved. The roughness of 1.5 nm was obtained at the most appropriate deliquescent rate and material removal rate.

The full-range spatial errors and surface integrity controlling of large-aperture KDP crystal have been broken through the ultra-precision polishing technology. For future research, we will focus on the research of MRF to solve the problem of the mid-spatial frequency error controlling, surface cleaning, which are the main factors to limit the damage threshold. Besides, in order to further improve the surface quality of KDP, we will also explore a novel magnetic fluid of cubic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for MRF.

Dae Wook KIM, University of Arizona, USA

Freeform Optics Technology for Extremely Large Astronomical Telescopes
Dae Wook Kim
Assistant Professor of Optical Sciences and Astronomy
University of Arizona
Biography:
Dae Wook Kim is an assistant professor of optical sciences and astronomy at the University of Arizona. He has been working in the optical engineering field for more than 10 years, mainly focusing on very large astronomical optics, such as the 25 m diameter Giant Magellan Telescope primary mirrors. His main research area covers precision freeform optics fabrication and various metrology topics, such as interferometric test systems using computer generated holograms, direct curvature measurements, and dynamic deflectometry systems. He is currently a chair/co-chair of the Optical Manufacturing and Testing conference (SPIE) and the Optical Fabrication and Testing conference (OSA). He is a senior member of OSA and SPIE and has been serving as an associate editor for the journal Optics Express.

Abstract: Next generation space and ground based astronomical optics are bringing about exciting developments in our scientific understanding of the Universe in which we live. Over 1,000 tons giant astronomical telescope systems coupling diffraction-limited spatial resolution with unprecedented photon collection power will be one of the most powerful scientific investigation tools. Their primary optics, 25m Giant Magellan Telescope, 8.4m Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and 4.2m Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, have been nano-manufactured at the University of Arizona. Those precision optics were efficiently fabricated using a computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) technology. Also, to build the next generation of telescope optics, new metrology methods and tools have been developed. Various dynamic manufacturing technologies including active shape-control Stressed lap, non-Newtonian fluid lap, IR deflectometry using a hot wire, iPhone-based dynamic freeform metrology, and mathematical framework for the high resolution vector data processing are presented with actual data demonstrating their nanometer level manufacturing and testing capability. Recognizing and highlighting some key emerging technology in this precision manufacturing area will be beneficial for the scientific community.

Mustafizur RAHMAN, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Nano Finishing Mechanism in Turning Process
Mustafizur Rahman
National University of Singapore

Biography:
Professor Mustafizur Rahman is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the National University of Singapore. His research interests include Ultra-precision machining, micro/nano machining, design and development of machine tools and devices for micro/nano machining, high speed machining of difficult-to-machine materials and large format machining. Some of his latest research areas are: Hybrid simultaneous EDM/ECM, Compound arc machining and gun drilling (CAMGD), ductile mode machining of brittle materials, Machining of freeform features based on Digital Images. He has received William Jonson Gold Medal for Life Time Achievement in Material Processing Research and Teaching in 2009, A M Strickland Prize from IMechE in 2009, the Leading Edge Manufacturing Achievement Award from the JSME in 2005, and IES Prestigious Engineering Achievement Award in 2003, He has authored more than 470 journal and conference papers. He is in the editorial board for 10 International Journals.
Recently he has compiled a book on “Modern manufacturing processes” published by Elsevier, UK. It is most likely the first book on tool-based micro machining covering all possible means of materializing ultra-precision machining process.
Currently, he is also a director of a NUS spin-off company, Mikrotools Pte Ltd. (www.mikrotools.com) which produces machine tools for micro and nano machining.

Abstract:
Turning process is usually considered to consist of only shearing and ploughing as proposed by Merchant and cutting mechanism is dominated by the cutting for force. However, in 1953, Masuko Masami proposed and established that when chip thickness (a) becomes comparable to the edge radius (r) of the cutting tool, their ratio (a/r) plays a significant role in cutting mechanism which gets dominated by the thrust force.
In 2010, Woon Keng Soon, et.al. proposed that chip formation transforms from concentrated shearing to an ‘extrusion-like’ behavior at a critical value of undeformed chip thickness and tool edge radius (a/r). He established through Finite element analysis that material is removed by severe deviatoric stress within the boundary of elastic-plastic deformation during extrusion-like chip formation while this boundary is constantly redistributed to accommodate chip growth. Simultaneously, the deformation region is contained within active compressive components and hydrostatic pressure as chips are extruded. Under such operating conditions, void nucleation is prevented according to the Le-Chatelier’s Principle. Exceptional surface finish was produced experimentally through the extrusion-like chip formation mechanism.
In a recent study (2018), M. Azizur Rahman, et.al. proposed that the mechanics of ultraprecision machining (UPM) is affected by materials microstructures and cutting tool geometries when cutting magnitudes are reduced to micron-scale. He proposed a flow stress model that correlates the grain size and chip thickness to the relative tool sharpness. Subsequently he developed a novel behavioral chip formation model to distinguish the transitions in chip formation regimes due to the microstructural and cutting-edge effects. This led to the discovery of a unique finishing regime where surface roughness is significantly improved and nano finishing can be achieved without any further secondary process and is termed as ‘burnishing-like’ mechanism which enables achieving extremely high surface finish without any further secondary polishing process.
An attempt will be made in this presentation to discuss the chronological development of the full development from shearing to polishing in a turning process with a special emphasis on the recently established ‘burnishing’ mechanism in a turning process.

Sandy TO, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China

Ultra-precision Machining of Micro/Nanostructures and Its Application
Prof. Sandy, Suet TO
State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University


Biography:
Prof. Sandy TO is a Professor of the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Associate Director of State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology and Advanced Optics Manufacturing Centre. Prof. TO is an active researcher who focuses on fundamental research and applied research in Ultra-precision Machining; Advanced Optics Manufacturing; Precision Injection Molding and Material Science. She has published more than 200 international journal papers and 100 international conference papers in various fields including precision engineering, advanced optics manufacturing and material science. She has secured a large numbers of external projects as Principal Investigator (PI)/Project Coordinator (PC) over the past a few years.

Abstract:
Bio-inspired hierarchical micro/nanostructures have offered new functionalities and developments in optical, photoelectric, interfacial, antibacterial, catalytic and mechanical components in a range of modern industries. The newly added functionalities vary with respect to different types and feature sizes of the micro/nanostructures on the primary surface of the components and require the development of new capabilities for enriching the libraries of existing micro/nanostructures.
This topic will introduce the latest technology of ultra-precision machining of freeform optics and its application. Our recent research on developing a novel Diamond Milling Servo (DMS) based micro/nanomachining for the generation of hierarchical micro/nanostructures will be discussed. Experimentally, the diamond cutting techniques are demonstrated by fabricating a variety of micro/nanostructures on both planar and freeform surfaces.

Min XU, Fudan University, China

Manufacturing Technology of Complex Functional Optical Structures
Prof. Min Xu, PhD
Director of Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-precision Optical Manufacturing,
Fudan University, China
Email: minx@fudan.edu.cn


Biography:
Prof. Min Xu received his PhD degree in optical engineering from Zhejiang University in 1997, and was awarded with the national distinguished expert of “One-Thousand-Talents Scheme” in 2010. His research interests include optical design, thermal imaging, ultra-precision optical manufacturing and metrology. He has accomplished a batch of national key projects from the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China as Principle Investigators including 02 major projects. He has published near 100 research papers and got over 20 granted patents, and delivered about 35 invited talks in various international conferences. He received the Technology Progress Award (Second Class) from Ministry of Education of Peoples’ Republic of China in 2016. Currently he is a member of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), an executive member of Chinese Society for Optical Engineering (CSOE), an academic committee member of China Academy of Engineering Physics, a council member of the optical manufacturing branch of Chinese Optical Society and a visiting research professor of Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also an editorial board member of International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing.

Abstract:
Optical components can be classified in three groups: conventional components, freeform components and functional structured components. Complex functional structured components are featured not only in complex topography, but also with special mechanical and optical functions as well. Typical examples include large metal mirrors, ultra-precision stages, precision measuring pedestals, and optical gyro substrates, etc. The manufacturing process for these components are of long cycle, complex process chain, high tolerance and accuracy requirement, involving a variety of fabrication and measurement equipment. This presentation will introduce the research results of block manufacturing technology applied to ArF 193nm lithography equipment, which were finished by Fudan University, Shanghai Microelectronics Equipment Limited and Shanghai Optical Precision Machinery Research Institute. The report includes the following topics:

• The function of a block in lithography equipment;
• Quality requirements of a block;
• The challenge for the manufacturing of blocks;
• Specification achieved and test results.

Liangchi ZHANG, University of New South Wales, Australia

Moulding of Optical Lens and Microlens Arrays: Merits and Problems
Liangchi Zhang
Laboratory for Precision and Nano Processing Technologies
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
The University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 Australia
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Biography:
Dr Liangchi Zhang is Scientia Professor at the University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Australia; prior to which he has worked at the University of Cambridge UK, the National Mechanical Engineering Laboratory MITI Japan and the University of Sydney Australia. His research is on both the fundamentals and industrial applications in the cross-disciplinary field of precision manufacturing, nanotechnology and biomedical manufacturing. His research outcomes have been well received and have led to economic benefits for industry in tens of million dollars per annum. He has been granted many scientific and technological awards, honors and prizes by scientific and technological bodies globally, including the “B-HERT Best Research and Development Collaboration Award”, “Best Paper Awards”, “UNSW inventor of the Year” and “Distinguished Achievement Award in Machining Technology”. He is on the editorial board of a variety of academic publications. He was awarded a higher doctoral degree, Doctor of Engineering, by the University of Sydney in 2005 and elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering in 2006.

Abstract:
The manufacture of optical lens and microlens arrays of optical glass has been costly. This is partly because the processes involved in their manufacturing are expensive, inefficient and uneasy to control. Such processes include ultra-precision cutting, grinding, polishing and lapping, which, when improperly managed, can introduce surface integrity problems to a lens fabricated. Glass moulding as an alternative process for lens manufacture has certain advantages, e.g., higher production rates, in comparison with the above traditional techniques. However, there are other problems evolved, such as distortion of a lens moulded caused by thermal stresses and net shape moulding. This presentation will discuss some of these issues aiming at the accurate moulding of optical lens and microlens arrays.

Xuejun ZHANG, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, China

Large SiC Aspherical Mirror Manufacturing and Testing
Xuejun Zhang
Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences, China
Biography:
Xuejun Zhang received his Ph.D degree from Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (CIOMP) in 1997. He is now vice president of CIOMP and director of Key Laboratory of Optical Manufacturing and Testing. Dr. Zhang has been engaged in optical system design, manufacturing and testing for more than 20 years, as principle investigator,he has completed numbers of national research projects and won three National Awards for Achievements in Science and Technology (1999, 2008, and 2011). He received NSF’ funding for Excellence in 2000. He is now in charge of 5 national projects and also the leader of the team of 30 Meter Telescope (TMT) Tertiary Mirror Manufacturing. Dr. Zhang is fellow of SPIE and member of OSA and has published over 100 peer reviewed technical papers.

Abstract:
Silicon Carbide (SiC) due to its mechanical and thermal stability has been used as mirror blank material in numbers of space applications, the superior in-orbit performance further demonstrated its advantages over counterpart materials. Nevertheless, the complicated production processes (Sintered or CVD) limited the availability of large (over 2 meters) SiC mirror blank.

Since 2002, CIOMP has investigated SiC mirror technology based on Reaction Bonding (RB) process. The light weight green body was made by Evaporative Pattern Casting (EPC) process, which made large net-shape blank easier. Thanks to the low shrinkage (<1%) of RB process, CIOMP has succeeded in manufacturing 2m class monolithic SiC mirror blanks. To make 4m SiC blank, CIOMP came up with RB Joint Stitching (RB-JS) technique, 12 segments were jointed together by this technique. Compared to brazing which was used by Herschel telescope (a sub-millimeter telescope) , RB-JS used the SiC jointing flux to make the thermal and mechanical stability of the finished mirror as good as the monolithic piece. 15 nm rms figure accuracy has been reached on a 2m RB-JS mirror, and the result ensures the visible light imaging applications.

To meet the specs of space observing projects, those large SiC mirrors should have better than 20nm rms figure accuracy and 2nm finish. CIOMP developed deterministic fabricating processes including MRF polishing, CCOS grinding and polishing to ensure the efficiency and accuracy. To overcome the high surface scattering of bare SiC mirror, a PVD over coating technique was developed, by cladding a 10-micron thick Si layer on top of the substrate, less than 1nm roughness can be achieved by the follow-on polishing process.

In this talk, the 2m and 4m SiC blank manufacturing, deterministic grinding, polishing and testing, as well as over coating technique will be addressed. Some of the application examples will also be presented.

Bi ZHANG, Southern University of Science and Technology, China

Fundamentals in Machining of Hard & Brittle Materials
Bi Zhang, Chair Professor and Associate Dean
Southern University of Science and Technology
Email: zhangb@sustc.edu.cn

Biography:
Dr. Bi Zhang is a chair professor and an associate dean at the Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech) in China. He served on the faculty at the University of Connecticut (UConn) during 1992-2013, and worked at Dalian University of Technology in 2013-2016. His research has been focused on manufacturing processes and systems, with an emphasis on machining of hard and brittle materials. Since 2012, he has also been involved in additive manufacturing research of metallic parts, leading to a novel area of additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing. He is a fellow of the CIRP (The International Academy for Production Engineering), and a fellow of the ASME (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers).

Abstract:
Hard and brittle materials, such as ceramics, are difficult-to-machine materials because of their hard and brittle nature. This presentation will review the history of machining of hard and brittle materials, and re-examine “ductile-regime” machining of such materials from the view-points of mechanics and materials. The presentation will also introduce the research outcomes on machining of hard and brittle materials from various research groups, and discuss questions, such as:
1. Does material pile-up in machining have to be from plastic/ductile deformation?
2. What role does strain rate play in hard and brittle material machining?

Invited Speakers: (alphabetic order)

Yanlong CAO, Zhejiang University, China

Learning-based single image super-resolution for infrared and RGB image
Cao Yanlong
Zhejiang University

Biography:
Cao Yanlong: He is born in Jining, Shandong Province, November 1975, graduated from Zhejiang University. He is dean of Shandong Institute of Industrial Technology of Zhejiang University, deputy director of Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Center of Zhejiang University, and researcher of State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Electromechanical Systems of Zhejiang University. His researches focus on infrared imaging, testing and control, quality engineering, intelligent manufacturing and other aspects. He has directed more than 80 doctoral and master students and presided over more than 10 national and provincial projects, including 4 National Natural Science Foundation of China, one key project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, one joint project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and one national 973 project. More than 20 projects commissioned by the enterprise have completed. He has participated in writing 6 textbooks, and applied more than 30 invention patents. More than 70 academic papers have been published in academic journals, including more than 50 articles in SCI. He has won second prize in the China Machinery Industry Science and Technology Award, selected as a new star program of Zhejiang University, 151 talent project in Zhejiang Province, employed as a special-term professor in Henan Province.

Abstract:
Single image super-resolution (SISR), which aims to recover corresponding high-resolution (HR) image from a single low-resolution (LR) image, has attracted considerable attention from both the academic and industrial communities in recent years, resulting in the extensive applications such as security surveillance, autonomous driving, and medical analysis. The presentation introduced the concept, purposes and classification of super-resolution. Some deep learning based SR method has been stated in this presentation, such as SRCNN, VDSR and LapSRN. Some of my previous works that are related to image restoration and deep learning are introduced in this presentation. First, we successfully demonstrate that a better single-image-based non-uniformity correction (NUC) operator can be directly learned from a large number of simulated training images instead of being handcrafted as before and has proposed deep-learning-based approach for Single-image-based nonuniformity correction. Second, for infrared images, we present a cascaded architecture of deep neural networks with multiple receptive fields to increase the spatial resolution of infrared images by a large scale factor (×8). Third, we propose a new solution (named as Multi-Receptive-Field Network- MRFN), which outperforms existing SISR solutions in three different aspects: from receptive field: a novel multi-receptivefield (MRF) module is proposed to extract and fuse features in different receptive fields from local to global. Integrating these hierarchical features can generate better mappings on recovering high-fidelity details at different scales. from network architectures: both dense skip connections and deep supervision are utilized to combine features from the current MRF module and preceding ones for training more representative features. Moreover, a deconvolution layer is embedded at the end of the network to avoid artificial priors induced by numerical data preprocessing (e.g., bicubic stretching), and speed up the restoration process.

Shih-Chi CHEN, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China

DMD-based Random-access Scanner for Fast 3D Nano-fabrication
Shih-Chi Chen
Dept. of Mechanical and Automation Engineering
The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Biography:
Prof. Shih-Chi Chen received his B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from the National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, in 1999. He received his S.M. and Ph.D. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Following his graduate work, he entered a post-doctoral fellowship in the Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Harvard Medical School, where his research focused on biomedical optics and endomicroscopy. From 2009 to 2011, he was a Senior Scientist at Nano Terra, Inc., a start-up company founded by Prof. George Whitesides at Harvard University, to develop precision instruments for novel nanofabrication processes. Joining since 2011, he is presently an Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. His current research interests include ultrafast laser applications, biomedical optics, precision engineering, and nanomanufacturing. Prof. Chen is a member of the American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), SPIE, OSA, and IEEE. He is the recipient of a 2003 R&D 100 Award for the design of a microscale six-axis nanopositioner. In 2013, he received the Early Career Award from University Grants Committee of Hong Kong.

Abstract:
In this seminar, I will present a revolutionary way to manipulate and steer ultrafast lasers based on a digital micromirror device (DMD) and binary holography. The DMD scanner performs random-access or 3D scanning with a scanning speed of 22.7 kHz, scanning range of ~200 µm × 100 µm × 500 µm, and scanning resolution (i.e., minimum step size) of 270 nm and 130 nm in the axial and lateral directions respectively (40X objective). Multi-point ultrafast scanning are realized via the superposition of binary holograms. Demonstration will be given in both two-photon polymerization-based micro-fabrication and two-photon imaging of biological tissues. To further enhance the imaging and fabrication resolution, e.g., imaging through turbid tissues, point spread function of the laser focus is engineered and optimized via superposing the scanning and wavefront correction holograms. I will present the mathematical models and the optical design of the new imaging and fabrication platform with experiments verifying the predicted performance.

Zhishan GAO, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China

Profile metrology of binary optics element
Zhishan GAO
Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei Street 200, 210094, Nanjing.


Biography:
Prof. Zhishan Gao received his M.S. in optics from Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (CIOMP) in 1992, and Ph. D. in optical engineering from Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NJUST) in 2000. He was a senior visiting scholar at University of Stuttgart, Germany, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA, in 2008 and 2015, respectively. He currently has a joint appointment as a Professor at NJUST with the department of Optical Engineering and Advanced Launching Co-innovation Center.

Prof. Gao received more than 20 Chinese patents; authored and co-authored 3 books and book chapters, 60 refereed papers; delivered more than 20 colloquium, seminars, invited conference presentations. He is a member of a council of the Chinese Optical Society (COS) and the Chinese Society for Optical Engineering (CSOE). He was awarded Wang Daheng’s Optical Prize of the COS to commend and encourage his outstanding contribution made in optical science and technology in 2007.

Prof. Gao’s research interests center around optical design, optical assembly and optical metrology. His research covers interferometry, optometry, aspheres, freeform optics, binary optics, and et al

Abstract:
Binary optics is a surface-relief optics technology based on the photolithography and diamond turning techniques primarily, with the ‘‘binary’’ in the name referring to the binary coding scheme used in creating the relief microstructures. And binary optical elements (BOE) could provide greater design freedom and new materials choices. With the advantage of stronger regulation for optical field, better aberrations correction, excellent dispersion performances, BOE have been widely applied in many industry fields.

Macroscopic substrate and microscopic morphology are the two important profile metrology parameters for BOE. As the low-frequency components of the profile, the macroscopic substrate will affect the BOE’s focal length and diffractive efficiency. And the high-frequency components of the profile such as the numbers, height, morphology and duty cycles for the microstructure will also have influence on the diffractive efficiency, aberrations correction and wavefront modulation ability of BOE.

In this presentation, we will introduce two types of methods for profile metrology of BOE: direct and indirect measurement. Diffractive efficiency measurement is the main and typical indirect method for the measurement of profile for BOE. As for the direct profile measurement of BOE, we will mainly introduce our researches on the dual-wavelength laser interferometry (DWLI), the white light microscopic interferometry (WLMI) and the ptychography.

For the macroscopic substrate profile metrology of BOE, DWLI can extend the measure range to several micrometers level by obtaining the long equivalent wavelength interferometric information. And we will introduce our developed DWLI with the working wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 532 nm, whose corresponding long equivalent wavelength is 3.34 μm. And to test the large-scale variance of the substrate deformation for BOE, we present the moiré fringe interferometry method to identify low-frequency moiré fringe from the closed single-wavelength interference fringes.

For the microscopic morphology metrology of BOE, we have developed the instruments of WLMI and a series of Mirau interferometric microscopic objective with large field and long working-distance. And a series of our independent intellectual property rights of core technology for the interferometric microscopic objective, micro-displacement technology of piezoelectric ceramic actuator, and the generalized cross correlation phase retrieval method have been applied in our developed WLMI. In addition, we also have done some researches on the super-resolution measurement, medical device measurement and some biologic tissue (such as the dragonfly eye) measurement with our developed WLMI. To simplify the optical structure for the microscopic morphology metrology of BOE, we will introduce our researches about the ptychography without imaging lenses.

River Guo, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HKSAR

Optical Engineering in the Aviation Services Research Centre
GUO Wen-jiang
Aviation Services Research Centre


Biography:
Dr. Guo Wenjiang obtained her PhD degree from Nanyang Technological University Singapore in 2015 in optical metrology. From 2014 she worked with the Agency for Science Technology and Research (ASTAR), Singapore, as a development scientist mainly working on metrology and non-destructive testing (NDT) related projects. She moved to the Aviation Services Research Centre (ASRC) in 2017, continuing to explore metrology and NDT especially for applications in the aircraft maintenance field.

Abstract:
Optical engineering plays an important role in the aerospace maintenance overhaul and repair (MRO) sector. This is due to the amount of information that can be interpreted from optical signals, such as geometry deformation, structural damages, chemical changes, etc. Hence, ASRC has been investing heavily on optical instruments, which cover majority of the useful spectrum, ranging from 400nm to 14μm.

Visual inspection of airplanes for external damage is regularly conducted. Today the inspection is mainly done by ground staff, which is inefficient, with poor traceability and is difficult to implement when inspecting the airframe crown and stabilizer. ASRC has built an image acquisition system which consists of a 30 megapixels camera and an EF800mm F/5.6 lens. This combination gives a resolution of 9 pixels per mm from 30 meters away. When coupled together with the in-house developed damage detection algorithm, damage such as lightning strikes can be picked up automatically.

As an RGB camera works on colour difference, inspection results might be affected by the aircraft livery. The ASRC has a hyperspectral camera that looks at the entire response from 400nm to 1000nm, with discrimination of around 4.7nm intervals with 128 channels and thus the spectral reflections reveal the chemical characteristics. The hyperspectral camera is therefore able to differentiate damages based on chemical signatures. The instrument, that is widely applied in industries such as forensics, food safety and agriculture, has successfully demonstrated its potential in MRO for the first time.

After the damage has been identified, it is necessary to access its significance. ASRC has various 3D scanner to perform precise, cost-efficient and fast surface data capture, based on which the in-house developed algorithm can then automatically provide quantitative analysis. Information such as shape and size of deformation can be visualized for next-step assessment. An optical system that is responsive to longer wavelength can look through the surface and provide subsurface information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) which works in the near infrared spectrum can provide adequate amount of resolution and penetration for imaging glass fibres. The instrument that is originally developed for imaging human retina is applied to image multiple layers within aircraft glass fibre panels as an important process for automatic composite repair in future.

For deeper penetration requirements, ASRC has long wave infrared cameras that are responsive up to 14μm wavelength. When coupled together with an external optical excitation and in-house developed data processing algorithm, the thermography system can create subsurface structures up to about 10mm in composite panels. Defects such as delamination, voids, and water ingress can be easily visualized.

Currently, ASRC has two major foci in optical engineering: the optimization of the imaging results and the automation of each imager for future integration. The continual improvement in ASRC’s capability in these areas will definitely help our MRO partners’ processes to be more efficient, repeatable, and reliable.

Lingbao KONG, Fudan University, China

A study of functional microstructures with directional transport for bionic microfluidics
Kong Lingbao, Boby
Fudan University

Biography:
Prof. LB. Kong received the B.Eng. and M.Eng. degrees from Harbin Institute of Technology and the PhD. degree from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. His research interests include: process modeling and optimization of ultra-precision manufacturing, freeform machining and measurement, design and generation of bionic functional structures, multi-sensor and multi-spectrum metrology, etc. Dr. Kong joined Advanced Optical Manufacturing Centre as a Research Assistant in 2004 and then a Research Associate in 2008. He got a visiting scholar to Centre for Precision Technology in Huddersfield University in 2007. He held a position as a Scientific Officer in Partner State Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University during 2011 to 2015, and a Senior Research Fellow from 2015-2016. Currently Dr. Kong is a Research Professor in Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Research Center of Fudan University. He has published more than 110 research papers in various international journals and conferences, authored /co-authored 4 book chapters, and got a number of granted patents. He has also be honored with different awards internationally and from China. He is a Research Affiliate of CIRP and members of international institutes and societies such as ASME, IEEE, IET, CMES, OSA, COS, COES, etc.

Abstract:
Microfluidics, also known as lab-on-a-chip, is a method for precisely controlling and manipulating microscale fluids with feature size ranging from tens to hundreds of microns. Bio-inspired and biomimetic microfluidics refer to the design and development of micro-channel fluidic devices with biomimetic structures and functions inspired by the structure and function of living organisms. As an important technology to study the life process with optical methods, microfluidics is widely used in the field of biology and medicine. Inspired by bionics, biomimetic microfluidic control has become a promising branch of microfluidic field. In the microfluidic channel, it imitates biological functions such as collecting water droplets and cilia driven fluid motion, which provides an alternate approach for the design and development of new microfluidic devices. This talk presents a study of functional microstructures with directional transport for the application of bionic microfluidics. Biological microstructured surface with directional transport function was first studied and designed, to imitate the rose petals, the outer skin of the Texas horned lizard and the peristome surface of Nepenthes alata. The model of bionic microstructure with directional transportation was then established to reveal the characteristic mechanism of typical directional transport microstructures. Microstructures with function of directional transport were designed regarding to the criteria of distance and speed of directional transportation of water droplets. Simulation and experimental studies show that the designed functional microstructured surface is capable to achieve the expected function of directional transport. Such microstructures can be applied to the design and processing of microfluidic chips, therefore the research is helpful to promote the application and development of bionic microfluidics in optical microscopy.

Bing LI, Harbin Institution of Technology, China

Research Advances of High-performance Bionic Jumping Robot
Bing Li
Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen
State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System
Biography:
Prof. Li Bing received his B.S. degree and M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Liaoning Technical University, China, in 1993 and 1995, and the Ph.D. degree in Dept. of Mechanical Engineering from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, in 2001. He was the Engineering Director of Maxbright Engineering Ltd. in Hong Kong, from 2002 and 2003. He was an Associate Professor at mechanical engineering in Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China from 2003-2006, and was a Professor in 2006. He is currently the Executive Dean of the School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen, China. His research interests include robotics, parallel kinematic machines and mechanical vibration and control. Prof. Bing Li is an awardee of the Leading Talent in Scientific and Technological Innovation, National "Ten Thousand People Program" of China, 2016; also the Awardee of the National Candidate of "New Century Talents Project", Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of China, 2017. He is Currently an Associate Editor of Intelligent Service Robotics(Springer). He was a recipient of State Technological Invention Award of China in 2014 and Natural Science Award of Shenzhen in 2016.

Abstract:
Bionic jumping robots have wide application potential in disaster rescue, anti-terrorism and battlefield reconnaissance etc. However, the bionic jumping robots with over-obstacle capacity of cross medium and load capacity are still under investigation. The key techniques for research and development of the jumping robots include the bionic mechanism of the squid water-jet propulsion, the theoretical modeling of the terrestrial and aquatic jump processes and the innovative design of the jumping actuator etc. HIT Shenzhen research team develops a small-scale terrestrial jumping robot; its core component (combustion-type jumping actuator) can effectively convert the explosive energy generated by the fuel gas into the jumping kinetic energy, thereby realizing the terrestrial jumping movement of the robot. The terrestrial jumping robot weighs 7.5kg and can achieve the maximum vertical jump height of 5 meters. Its impact-absorbing wheel of unique honeycomb structure can effectively attenuate the impact of landing, thus protecting the robot components. The research team also develops a high-pressure water jet thruster based on the principle of self-pressurization of liquid nitrogen at room temperature, which can realize the over-obstacle action of the jumping robot from water to air. The prototype of the aquatic jumping robot can achieve the maximum vertical jump height of 7.5 meters with a self-weight of 6kg, and its twin-propeller underwater cruise propulsion mode makes the robot more flexible in aquatic movement. Future work will focus on the amphibious bionic jumping robot with continuous cross-medium jumping ability.

David ROBERTSON, son-X GmbH, Germany

Large Metal Mirrors - Opportunities and Challenges
David J Robertson
Son-x GmbH, Aachen, Germany
Biography:
Professor Robertson has a BSc in Electrical Engineering and a PhD in Solid State Physics but has spent most of his professional career working in the field of optical and infrared instrumentation primarily for Space and Ground Based Astronomy. In the late 1980s, at the Royal Observatory in Edinburgh, he was project manager for the first astronomical instrument to use diamond machined optics, an IR Spectrograph for the UKIRT telescope in Hawaii. From 1991 he was Instrumentation Manager for the Gemini Telescopes Project in the USA. He returned to the UK in 1996 to take up a 5-year PPARC senior fellowship at Durham University’s Physics Department where he managed the Astronomical Instrumentation Group. On completion of the fellowship in 2001 Prof Robertson was awarded tenure at the University and became Deputy Director of the newly established Centre for Advanced Instrumentation (CfAI). He later went on to establish a diamond machining facility at Durham (in 2004) to support his instrumentation work, he was promoted to Research Professor in 2006 and became Associate Director for Precision Optics at the CfAI. During this period, he was awarded a 3-year Royal Society Industry Fellowship in Micro-optics. Prof Robertson took voluntary early retirement from the University in 2017 and joined son-x GmbH in Aachen as Director of Business Development and New Projects.

Abstract:
Metal mirrors have been used for some time in instrumentation particularly at infrared wavelengths where components are typically cryogenically cooled and require materials with good thermal conductivity to facilitate instrument cooling. Metal mirror substrates exhibit good thermal conductivity (compared to their glass equivalents) and they can be fabricated with integral mounting schemes and in addition can be weight relieved using conventional precision CNC machining processes providing relatively inexpensive athermal mounting and lightweight solutions. Employing innovative processes in additive manufacturing techniques, such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM), metal mirror substrates can be produced with complex geometries that are difficult or impossible to machine conventionally providing the opportunity to produce mirror substrates with optimized geometries with respect to shape and mass.

Diamond machining is the normal method used to create the final optical finish on metal mirrors. However, the challenging specifications demanded for state-of-the-art instrumentation can exceed the performance achievable by diamond machining alone. Post-polishing using either conventional CNC polishing or MRF techniques are required, after diamond machining, to achieve the level of surface accuracy required. To achieve the best surface finish in conjunction with a demanding form specification it can be necessary to coat the mirror substrates with a secondary coating that can be post-polished eg a high Phosphor content Nickel (NiP) plating. However, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Aluminium is significantly different to that of NiP that even small temperature changes can cause differential movement between the substrate and the coating causing distortion (so called bi-metallic effect). A range of Aluminium alloys containing Silicon (eg AlSi40 containing 40% Silicon content) have been produced that match the CTE of the substrate to the Nickel coating thus eliminating issues caused by changes in temperature for such components.

In this talk I give a brief overview of the progress achieved in the manufacture of metal mirrors over the past 40-50 years. I will also discuss the opportunities for and advantages of large metal mirrors and the corresponding challenges for their manufacture to the required demanding high level of quality I will also demonstrate that the manufacturing process train required to achieve meter class metal mirrors of high optical quality currently exists today.

Zhen TONG, University of Huddersfield, The United Kingdom

Ultra-precision machining of functional surfaces with embedded metrology
Dr Zhen Tong
EPSRC Future Metrology Hub, Centre for Precision Technologies (CPT)
University of Huddersfield, UK
Email: z.tong@hud.ac.uk


Biography:
Dr Zhen Tong is the Leader of Ultra-Precision Manufacturing Group of CPT and responsible for managing CPT’s ultra-precision manufacturing lab. His research focuses on the development of ultra-precision manufacturing technologies for freeform and structured surfaces (simulation, modelling, machining and performance) in conjunction with integration of on-machine measurement systems and surface functional applications. He has been heavily involved in 3 EPSRC research projects (EP/P006930/1, EP/K018345/1 and EP/I033424/1) as a key researcher, with significant contributions to the fundamental study of ultra-precision diamond machining, development of novel surface structuring technology, and nano-characterization of machined surface integrity. Dr Tong is currently a Co-I and steering board member on a €5M European Horizon 2020 research programme for mass production of functional structured surfaces (FOF-06-767589 ProSurf, 2018-2021).

He is a Research Affiliate of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP); an Associated Member of the International Committee for Abrasive Technology (ICAT); an Active Scientific Committee member of European Society for Precision Engineering & Nanotechnology (EUSPEN); a member of the International Society for Nanomanufacturing (ISNM); a group member of the UK FIB and EM sample Preparation group (FIB&Pre), and an Associate Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (HEA) of UK.

Abstract:
The increasing complexity of functional surface structures in terms of structure size and area shape and scale brings considerable challenges on the existing ultra-precision manufacturing and surface measurement technologies. The discrete nature of manufacturing cycle in industry where the measurement instrument used for quality assessment are normally in an offline manner, significantly limits productivity and flexibility.

The presentation gives a brief coverage to the historical development of surface metrology and measurement systems embedded within the manufacturing process. The merits and limitations of embedded measurement systems used in ultra-precision manufacturing are compared and discussed. The specific emphasis has been put on the system integration and calibration when applying embedded measurement system in ultra-precision manufacturing environment. It is found that with embedded metrology, it is possible to further improve the processing efficiency and reliability of high-precision manufacturing. The machine tool static and dynamic motion error, the on-machine vibration and the linearity error of the embedded metrology system are the major error sources of the process. A secondary control system will be further developed for surface measurement, error compensation planning, processing parameters optimization and quality control.

Shuming YANG, Xian Jiaotong University, China

Measurement method for structured surface at nano scale
Shuming Yang
Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Biography:
Shuming Yang, is currently a professor at School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU), China. He achieved his BSc and MSc in mechanical engineering from XJTU, and Ph.D. in nanotechnology and instrumentation from University of Huddersfield (UoH) of the UK. He then started to work at UoH, after that he joined in XJTU till now. His research areas include micro-/nano-fabrication and measurement, optical technology and instrumentation, precision/ultra-precision manufacturing etc. He has held more than 20 research projects including National Key R&D Program of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects etc. He obtained National Natural Science Funds for Excellent Young Scholar, and the New Century Excellent Talent Support Program of the Ministry of Education. He achieved the first prize of Science and Technology Progress Award from the Ministry of Education, and the second prize of Science and Technology Progress Award from the Chinese Society for measurement (CSM), Shaanxi Youth Science and Technology Awards, and Vice Chancellor’s Award of UoH. He was elected as a fellow of the International Society for Nanomanufacturing (ISNM), and a board member of CSM, a senior member of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES), etc. He is also an associate editor of Journal of Manufacturing Systems, an editor of Nanomanufacturing and Nanometrology, a guest editor of Measurement Science and Technology, and a guest editor of Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology etc.

Abstract:
Measurement at nano scale is becoming even more important with the ultra-precision manufacturing and the nano fabrication getting further development. Structure surfaces at nano scale are widely used to build nano devices and systems. There are some methods for the measurement of structured surfaces, but it will be challenged if the dimension is down to critical size, the depth-to-width ratio is larger than the length of the probe or the light cannot reach. For these problems, this talk will discuss the measurement methods developed for the structure when the feature size is less than half wavelength, and the depth-to-width ratio is large than the normal probe.

Xiaodong ZHANG, Tianjin University, China




Xin ZHANG, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, China

Tackling the challenges of low-distortion wide angle camera lens
Xin Zhang
Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences, China


Biography:

Zhang Xin, (1968.06), Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences (CAS), professor, doctoral tutor and CAS distinguished research fellow. His scientific interests include optical design, optical remote sensing, free-form optics technology, virtual reality, optical manufacturing of special materials (include Beryllium and Aluminum alloy) and space optical system. Prof. Zhang undertook numbers of engineering tasks and has rich experiences in the reconnaissance detection and early warning optical system. He has won more than 20 national awards. During the "11th Five-Year" and "12th Five-Year", he was appointed to be the member of the expert group by the National High Technology Research and Development Program. He has authored/co-authored more than 150 papers and has been invited to give reports in international academic conference for more than 10 times.

Abstract:
The advent of the modern photo system has led to more and more stringent requirements for high-performance wide field camera lens. This report will focus on a wide-field space imagining optical system, whose focal length is 3.65mm, field of view (FOV) is 145°, the distortion <40% and MTF>0.40 inφ120°FOV. Low relative illumination and large distortion are two of the most important problems that should be solved in order to get good imaging quality. Normally people could use aspheric surfaces to correct the distortion and other related optical aberrations. Our investigations showed that some important factors related to design, tolerance, mounting and testing, should be well considered so as to make good use of aspheric surfaces.

In this talk, one novel design which utilizes the advantages of aspheric surfaces to achieve high performance will be given. The engineering challenges related to the utilization of aspheric surfaces in this wide-field space imaging camera lens will be fully discussed. In order to meet the challenges of imaging in the outer space, very sturdy mechanical structure for vibration and impact test was also be considered. The final lens has a compact size and the overall weight is less than 110g. After all the vibration and impact test, the tested imaging quality of the wide-angle camera lens is MTF >0.40 withinφ120°FOV at 102lp/mm.